On every Fourth of July, Independence Day, we celebrate what makes the United States of America different from other countries. 200 years ago the fourth Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme court, John Marshall, was appointed by President John Adams. For 34 years he headed the nation’s federal judiciary, which helps insure our independence.
Marshall was a member of the U.S.
House of Representatives and was Secretary of State before being appointed
Chief Justice. He served during seven
different presidential terms, dying in 1835 during Andrew Jackson’s second term. He still holds the record for longest serving
Before Chief Justice Marshall’s
term , the Supreme Court was considered a minor part of the government. Marshall not only made the judicial branch co-equal
to the two other branches , as it is today, but he also presided over a case
that announced the Supreme Court’s authority to overrule the executive branch,
legislative branch, states, and lower courts, when necessary.
In the significant case of Marbury
v. Madison, decided in 1803, the Supreme Court said that the U.S. Constitution
is the supreme law of the land and that conflicting laws cannot be enforced. The
Marshall court clarified that federal law supersedes state law, and that the
Supreme Court is the federal court of last resort. Marshall wrote opinions about the meaning
of ‘commerce’ in the Constitution, the
protection of private institutions from
state interference, and explained that the Bill of Rights applied to states as
well as the federal government. These
cases remain some of the most important in the court’s history.
So, as we watch the fireworks
around the country this year, take time to think about those who contributed to
today’s independent nation. Although the
judicial branch is sometimes overlooked, 200 years ago John Marshall’s
influence changed the government, and gave federal courts power to enforce constitutional
law. Marshall is a giant of the
judiciary and one of the many who have allowed our nation to flourish and to
celebrate Independence Day for years to come.